‘Was Antipas legally competent to deal with Jesus in Jerusalem? The issue of competence turns on Roman law: where was a trial conducted, where the crime was committed or in the criminal’s place of residence, and was it conducted by magistrates of the one location or the other?
Pilate might, for the reasons hinted at in the narrative, plausibly have asked Antipas to have a look at Jesus, but he was not obliged to hand Jesus over.
Would Antipas have been competent? Trial in the place of ordinary domicile only came in later, so Pilate could not have evaded jurisdiction even if he wished to do so, though he could still have sent Jesus before Antipas.
Regarding the relationship between Antipas and Pilate, we have no direct evidence – and only slender threads of indirect evidence – that the two were at odds. Since Antipas was the logical person to inherit Judea, Samaria, and ldumaea when Archelaus was deposed in 6 CE, he would have been unhappy being subordinate to a succession of Roman prefects of Judea. He had speciﬁc reasons to be unhappy with Pilate’s actions and maybe with Pilate’s attitude in general. (p.312)
‘……Third, what of Antipas’s ﬁnding of no guilt in the informal hearing and the indications that he sought to kill him?
The evidence for a decision to kill Jesus is slanted, probably exaggerated, and perhaps a result of a Herodian party’s views. But it is not altogether implausible, given Antipas’s execution of John; since Jesus did not personally attack Antipas, he probably felt Jesus was not as guilty as John was.
Did Antipas hear Jesus before Pilate’s sentencing? If Luke’s narrative is independent of Mark’s, the plausibility of an Antipas-hearing is increased, and some of Luke’s and Mark’s differences would have to be resolved in favor of Luke. Yet if Antipas had a role in the trial, four episodes would need to be squeezed into a very busy morning:
- a hearing before the Sanhedrin,
- a trial before Pilate,
- an interview with Antipas, and
- a second Pilate episode.
Perhaps not an impossible schedule, but an extremely tight one.’
Herod, King of the Jews and Friend of the Romans, Peter Richardson, University of South Carolina Press, South Carolina, 1996, p.311-2.